Senator Margaret Chase Smith-Decaration of Conscience

Until opposing the Ant-Ballistic Missile System late in her career, Senator Margaret Chase Smith, {Republican-Maine} was a big supporter of military appropriations.   She really favored Research and Development; the United States to her must have the best technology to counter Soviet Cruelty or any other totalitarian government.  The Senator had no patience with people who made excuses for the Communists while criticizing their own government.   Senator Smith’s hard line peaked on September 24, 1963, when she was one of 19 Senators to vote against the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union.  

While not agreeing, I respected her stance against 81 Senators from both parties.  She took head on and with specific points the Congress, the President, and public opinion.  The Cuban Missile crisis was only a year in the past.  Senator Smith thought Americans were acting from fear and did not trust the Russians or any Communists one tiny bit-with good reason.  Reading her speech against the treaty, people will find she talks about logistics, threat levels around the world, and the past horrid record of the Russians.  She did not question the patriotism of those who supported the treaty nor mention that old song and dance about aid and comfort to the enemy.              


Victory not accommodation was her goal. Nevertheless, he wanted to fight Communism and Communists where they were and on  proven evidence.  Fighting extremism did not mean making false twisted changes against people; bringing up a person’s past mistakes without cause; criticizing new trends in movies, fashion, or books; and labeling a group Fascists or Communist just because they disagreed with you.  Often the more wild the charge, the greater its credibility. 


Margaret Chase Smith  had the courage to speak out against Joe McCarthy from Senator floor on June 1, 1950-just three month after he made his charges at Wheeling, WV   This speech did not much immediate attention.  Within a few years, more of the public realized brave she was taking on a Senator from her party.  If the country had followed her lead, it would have prevented allot of misery.  It ironic that using hope, freedom, and tolerance gets less than one based on fear and suspicion.      

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Senator Smith saw a dangerous trend developing in the United States.  In this thinly veiled attack on Joe MCarthy, she explores many idea vital to Americas.  She was only two years into her first term in Senate, being elected in 1948.  That and being woman a made her speech all the more remarkable.  McCarthy was four years into his first term, winning in 1946.


This speech has repetitive themes-the right to free speech without fear of losing your job, reputation, or life.   Some people did commit suicide from McCarthy’s tactics ; the right to criticize and hold unpopular beliefs; the right to privacy within your home and safety for your family; the suggestion of women, as guardians of the family,  to be especially sensitive to this threat;  the abuse of the Senatorial Privilege;  assumption of innocence in both court and public opinion until proven wrong; public opinion is vague, difficult to prove, but just as important;  the importance of adequate research and knowledge on any issue consistent with time constraints; the damage irresponsible Red Baiting was doing to our credibility in other countries.  Also notice, she makes intellectual appeals based on reason and logic;  Senator Smith also shows great compassion for those living under Communist governments and those already hurt or living in fear in the United States.  From said, I believe she is asking for a change in attitude and the abuse of privileges.  There no concrete proposals for legislative action.    



the
Speech or Debate Clause is a clause in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 6, Clause 1) . The clause states that members of both Houses of congress


…shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony, and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their attendance at the Session of their Respective Houses, and in going to and from the same, and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.


LIKE MOST ISSUES, THERE ARE OPPOSITE WAYS TO LOOK  AT THIS CONGRESSIONAL IMMUNITY PROVISION.  THE TRUTH LIES SOMEWHERE IN THE MIDDLE.

ESPECIALLY WITH SENATORS, ALL MEMBERS OF CONGRESS MUST ACT QUICKLY TO SUDDEN EVENTS WHICH DEVELOP WITHOUT NOTICE.  IT IS IMPOSSIBLE ON ANY ISSUE TO HAVE ALL THE INFORMATION NEEDED. MEMBERS SHOULD HAVE FREE AND OPEN DEBATE AND QUESTION THE MOTIVES OF THE PEOPLE INVOLVED.  ANYTHING ELSE RESTRICTS THEIR FREEDOM TO DISCUSS ANY PROPOSAL.   I WISH THE SENATE WOULD HAVE USED THIS PRIVILEGE FOR THE GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION, AS JUST ONE EXAMPLE.  


LOOKED AT CYNICALLY, IT ALLOWS CONGRESSMAN TO DREAM UP CHARGES AND ACCUSATIONS TO DISCREDIT THEIR OPPOSITION, PROVE A POINT, FURTHER AMBITIONS FOR REELECTION OR A PRESIDENTIAL BID, AND APPROVE PROJECTS FOR THEIR CONSTITUENTS.  THIS WAS NOT THE INTENT AND THIS IS WHAT SENATOR SMITH SAYS BELOW.
AT TIME OF THIS AMENDMENT’S APPROVAL,   WE WERE STILL IN FRONTIER DAYS.  LACK OF COMMUNICATION WAS A MAJOR REASON.

YOU MAY WANT TO READ THE SPEECH FROM THE INTERNET LEST MY COMMENTS DISTURB YOUR THOUGHT. 


Margaret Chase Smith  Declaration of Conscience June 1, 1950

I would like to speak briefly and simply about a serious national condition.

THE KEY WORD HERE IS NATIONAL.  NO OTHER COUNTRY IS CAUSING OR EVEN  SHARING OUR PROBLEM. SENATOR SMITH SAYS IT IS UNIQUE TO THE UNITED STATES AND WE MUST CONFRONT IT ALONE.


It is a national feeling of fear and frustration that could result in national suicide and the end of everything that we Americans hold dear.

THIS  IS A VERY COMPLEX STATEMENT.  SENATOR SMITH USES THE WORD NATIONAL TWICE.  THESE FEELINGS OF FEAR AND FRUSTRATION ARE LIKE SIAMESE TWINS.  IF PEOPLE KNOW OF A DANGER, WHICH IS EVIDENT AND TANGIBLE, THEY CAN TAKE ACTION TO AVOID IT.-STAYING AWAY FROM BAD URBAN AREAS AT NIGHT, THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR WAR,  OR LOSS OF OUR MEDICAL CARE.  THIS FEAR SENATOR SMITH REFERS TO  HAD A CAUSE THAT WAS DIFFICULT TO DETERMINE.  THIS LEADS TO FRUSTRATION, WHICH FURTHER INTENSIFIES THE FEAR; AN OBVIOUS CAUSE AND EFFECT SYNDROME EXISTS.   THIS NATIONAL SUICIDE MEANS THAT AMERICANS ARE ALLOWING THE PRINCIPLES  STATED IN THE CONSTITUTION TO GRADUALLY ERODE.  ONE DAY PEOPLE WILL SUDDENLY REALIZE THAT THEY HAVE LOST AT LEAST A LARGE PORTION OF THEIR FREEDOM THROUGH INATTENTION AND INACTION.  THE UNITED STATES WILL HAVE LOST THE DEMOCRACY AND SENSE OF FAIR PLAY THAT SHOULD BE EVIDENT IN OUR ACTIONS.          


It is a condition that comes from the lack of effective leadership in either the Legislative Branch or the Executive Branch of our Government.


MARGARET CHASE SMITH STATES THAT GOOD LEADERSHIP, BOTH IN THE CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT, COULD HAVE HALTED THIS DISTURBING ELEMENT IN OUR SOCIETY.  HOWEVER,  NO ONE  HAD TAKEN ANY STAND.    WHEN LEFT ALONE, A PROBLEM SELDOM GOES AWAY BUT GAINS MOMENTUM AND DOES EVEN MORE DAMAGE.  SENATOR SMITH  STILL HAS NOT STATED SPECIFICALLY WHAT THE PROBLEM IS BUT LISTENERS ARE BECOMING AWARE OF IT-THE IRRESPONSIBLE TACTICS OF SENATOR JOE MCCARTHY AND HIS SUPPORTERS.   ONLY FOUR MONTHS INTO THIS  NIGHTMARE, SHE FORESAW THE TREND.  TO USE A CLICHE, “YOU AIN’T SEEN NOTHING YET.”  THE TRAGIC THING  IS THAT THIS SPEECH REALLY GAINED  LITTLE SUPPORT EITHER IN THE CONGRESS, THE PRESS, OR THE PUBLIC. PEOPLE MUST SEE A THREAT TO THEIR PERSONAL LIVES TO EXPRESS ANGER OR TAKE ANY POSITIVE ACTION.   BY THE TIME MCCARTHYISM OR ANY OTHER DERANGED IDEA HITS THE PUBLIC AT LARGE,  IT MAY BE TOO LATE TO STOP.  A DEMAGOGUE’S GREATEST ALLY IS NOT SUPPORT.  A SMALL CADRE OF PEOPLE IS ALL THAT THEY REQUIRE.  APATHY AND INATTENTION ARE INDISPENSABLE TO A POWER HUNGRY MAN.  IN ADDITION,  MCCARTHYISM WAS NEVER AN ORGANIZED MOVEMENT.  IT WAS JUST A  SENSE OF FEAR THAT SOME GROUPS GENERATED.

That leadership is so lacking that serious and responsible proposals are being made that national advisory commissions be appointed to provide such critically needed leadership.


THE EXECUTIVE COMMISSIONS ARE TO DETERMINE HISTORICAL TRENDS,  ANSWER QUESTIONS ABOUT EVENTS SUCH AS THE WARREN COMMISSION, TO IMPROVE ADMINISTRATIVE OPERATIONS SUCH AS THE TWO HOOVER COMMISSIONS, OR TO STUDY THE CAUSES OF SOCIAL CONDITIONS SUCH AS  THE KERNER COMMISSION.  IF THERE IS A FOREST FIRE SPREADING, NO ONE WOULD SUGGEST A COMMISSION TO DETERMINE HOW IT STARTED, THE HISTORY OF PAST FIRES, OR HOW TO PREVENT THEM IN FUTURE.  EVERYONE,- LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT, PRIVATE COMPANIES, AND INDIVIDUALS, MUST STOP THE FIRE.   APPOINTING A CREW TO STUDY THIS WAVE OF DEMAGOGUERY IS EXACTLY WHAT SENATOR JOE MCCARTHY HAVE WANTED.   WHILE THE COMMITTEE RESEARCHES, MCCARTHY CONTINUES HIS SLANDER  AND THE PROBLEM GETS WORSE.


I speak as briefly as possible because too much harm has already been done with irresponsible words of bitterness and selfish political opportunism.

WITH THIS SENTENCE, SENATOR MARGARET CHASE SMITH  CROSSES THE LINE AND ATTACKS SENATOR MCCARTHY WITHOUT QUESTION BUT NOT BY NAME. THERE WAS NO NEED FOR A LONG SPEECH.  THIS RED BAITING STARTED AND COULD  HAVE BEEN EASY TO END.  MCCARTHY’S SPEECHES WERE LONG WINDED AND FULL OF IMPLICATIONS, FEAR, AND SUSPICION; BUT WHEN IT CAME TO CONCRETE PROOF, HE REALLY SAID NOTHING.  BY CHARGING THAT THERE WERE COMMUNISTS IN THE STATE DEPARTMENT OR FOREIGN SERVICE , HE PUT A  CLOUD OVER ALL EMPLOYEES OF THOSE AGENCIES.  ALL A GROUP OF SENATORS REALLY HAD TO DO TO STOP HIM WAS CONTINUALLY AND RELENTLESSLY ASK FOR PROOF.


ONCE AGAIN THE REASONS.  ALL OF US HAVE DONE SOMETHING IN OUR PAST THAT WE ARE NOT PROUD OF.  PEOPLE WERE JUST AFRAID THAT MCCARTHY AND HIS FRIENDS WOULD EXPOSE SOMETHING IN THEIR PAST LIVES .  JOE MCCARTHY WOULD SAY THAT ALL OF HIS ACCUSERS WERE SYMPATHETIC TO COMMUNISTS.  THIS FURTHER INTENSIFIED THE FEAR OF THEIR OPPONENTS.     


I speak as simply as possible because the issue is too great to be obscured by eloquence.


A LONG VERBOSE SPEECH WOULD OBSCURE THE REAL MESSAGE, GIVE A SENSE OF PLEADING, OR BE DIFFICULT TO REMEMBER.  AS INDICATED, THE ISSUE WAS OBVIOUS.   AN ELOQUENT SPEECH IS SHORT; CUTS TO MAIN IDEA QUICKLY;  IS FAIR; POINTS TO OUR PAST SUCCESSES AND FAILURES;  SHOWS THE URGENCY OF THE CURRENT SITUATION WITHOUT PANIC; AND  SUGGESTS WAYS TO CORRECT IT.       


I speak simply and briefly in the hope that my words will be taken to heart.


SENATOR SMITH RESTATES HER POSITION.  A GOOD, MEMORABLE,  SPEECH IS OFTEN SHORT.  THE LAST WORD IS THE KEY TO THIS STATEMENT.  SHE IS MAKING AN INTELLECTUAL APPEAL BASED ON THE FACTS,  DRAWING CONCLUSIONS FROM THEM, AND A SENSE OF FAIRNESS.   BY HEART, SENATOR SMITH IS EXPRESSING SOME FEELING FOR THOSE ALREADY HURT BY MINDLESS READ BAITING. 


I speak as a Republican, I speak as a woman. I speak as a United States Senator. I speak as an American.

ALL OF US HAVE EXPERIENCED  SITUATIONS WHERE OUR POSITION IN ONE CAPACITY CONFLICTS WITH OUR POSITION IN OTHER. A LITTLE LEAGUE  BASEBALL COACH PLAYS ANOTHER BOY IN PLACE OF HIS OWN SON FOR THE SAKE OF THE TEAM.  A JUDGE PASSES A SENTENCE EVEN TOUGH HE FEELS THE LAW IS UNFAIR OR THE SENTENCE TOO SEVERE.  A POLITICAL FIGURE SUPPORTS THE PARTY’S  NOMINEE EVEN THOUGH THEY MAKE PREFER  THE OPPOSITION.


FOR SENATOR SMITH HERE NO SUCH CONFLICT EXISTS.  THE ISSUE IS BOTH  MORAL AND POLITICAL. IT COVERS HER PARTY, HER GENDER, HER ELECTIVE OFFICE, AND FINALLY HER COUNTRY.  


THE REPUBLICAN PARTY WAS FOUNDED AT RIPON, WI IN 1854.  ITS MAIN IDEAS WERE THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY; PUBLIC EDUCATION; INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS; NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION USING RAILS AND RIVERS; AND A SENSE OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES.  NEVERTHELESS, THIS WAS NOT LAISSEZ FAIR.  IT STRONGLY BELIEVED IN PROPER REGULATION TO PREVENT ABUSE.  THE VISION OF REPUBLICANS WAS TO BUILD A SOCIETY WHERE BUSINESS, LABOR, FARMERS, AND UNIONS WOULD COOPERATE FOR THE SECURITY OF EVERYONE.   THIS WAS A IDEAL WE WOULD NEVER ACHIEVE BUT ALWAYS STRIVE FOR.    DOES THIS SOUND LIKE ONE OF SENATOR MCCARTHY’S GOALS?    
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AS A WOMEN, SENATOR SMITH WAS ALONE.  THERE HAD BEEN ONLY A FEW CONGRESSMEN AND TO MY KNOWLEDGE ONLY ONE OTHER WOMAN SENATOR BEFORE HER.  THE SCORE AT THIS TIME WAS 97 TO 1.   MCS WAS ALSO ONLY TWO YEARS INTO HER FIRST TERM IN THE SENATE.  FUSING THESE TWO FACTS  MIGHT HAVE CAUSED ANOTHER WOMAN TO BE PASSIVE.  QUITE THE CONTRARY, SENATOR SMITH THOUGHT THAT THE ISSUE WAS TOO GREAT FOR SILENCE.  MANY PEOPLE ALSO BELIEVE THAT WOMEN BRING A CERTAIN INTUITIVENESS TO ANY TASK THEY UNDERTAKE.


MORE IMPORTANTLY THOUGH, SENATOR SMITH KNEW THAT EVEN IN THIS ERA, WHEN WOMEN WERE MOSTLY WIVES AND MOTHERS, THAT THE ISSUE  OF INTOLERANCE AND FOOLISH RED BAITING WAS THEIR CONCERN.  IT WAS NOT SOMETHING RESERVED FOR MEN ONLY.  THE SENATOR NEVER HAD ANY CHILDREN BUT SHE UNDERSTOOD  FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES MORE THAN MOST PARENTS.  HOW WOULD  WOMEN FEEL IF THEIR HUSBANDS  LOST THEIR JOBS JOB? DO WOMEN WANT THEIR CHILDREN  TO GO TO SCHOOL IN FEAR AND SUSPICION?  DO YOU WANT SCHOOL DISTRICTS TO BAN BOOKS AND TEACH FOOLISH NOTIONS SUCH ANT-EVOLUTION OR THAT AMERICA IS ALWAYS RIGHT?  THIS IS ONLY A SHORT LIST OF SCARY POSSIBILITIES.   

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IN THE THIRD AREA, SMITH USES THE PHRASE UNITED STATES SENATOR NOT THE SENATOR FROM MAINE.  AS OPPOSED TO THE HOUSE, THE SENATE DEALS WITH POLICY, GUIDELINES, EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS, AND IS A CO-PILOT WITH THE PRESIDENT IN FOREIGN POLICY.  THE SENATOR SEES THIS ABUSE OF POWER AS A NATIONAL ISSUE AND THE IMPRESSION IT LEAVES ON OTHER COUNTRIES.  SHE IS NOT MERELY LOOKING OUT FOR HER CONSTITUENTS.

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BY AMERICAN, SENATOR SMITH STATES SHE WOULD HAVE THIS CONCERN IF ONLY A PRIVATE CITIZEN.   HATE, SLANDER, AND GROUNDLESS CHARGES OF COMMUNISM CONCERN EVERY AMERICAN.  SHE FELT THAT AMERICA SHOULD STAND UNITED TO RESIST COMMUNISM.  AT SAME TIME, SHE WANTS US ALSO TO UNITE AGAINST MINDLESS ACCUSATIONS, CONFUSING DISSENT WITH DISLOYALTY, AND PARANOID BEHAVIOR.   NOT ONLY IS THIS NOT FIGHTING COMMUNISM, IT IS CREATING THE KIND OF CONDITION COMMUNISTS WANT.     

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The United States Senate has long enjoyed worldwide respect as the greatest deliberative body in the world.

PRIOR TO 1950, THE SENATE HAD A RECORD A SOLID ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR ALMOST 20 YEARS.  SOME REPUBLICANS SUPPORTED MOST OF THE NEW DEAL.  THERE WERE NOTABLE REFORM AND PROGRAMS IN THE 30S WE NOW TAKE FOR GRANTED SUCH AS SOCIAL SECURITY, THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY, THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, AND  BANK INSURANCE.  THE SENATE QUICKLY APPROPRIATED FUNDS AFTER THE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR AND  CLOSELY WATCHED FOR FRAUD, WASTE, AND ABUSE.  AFTER THE WAR,  THE CONGRESS  APPROVED IN LAW AND WITH MONEY OUR ENTRANCE INTO THE UNITED NATIONS; THE CREATION OF NATO; THE BERLIN AIRLIFT; THE POINT FOUR PROGRAM; THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE; AND OTHER FOREIGN AID.  PRESIDENT TRUMAN OBTAINED  BIPARTISAN SUPPORT FOR THESE EFFORTS WORKING WITH REPUBLICANS AS WAYNE MORSE, MARGARET CHASE SMITH, HENRY CABOT LODGE, AND ROBERT A TAFT.  TRUMAN APPOINTED AND THE SENATE CONFIRMED WARREN AUSTIN, A REPUBLICAN SENATOR FROM VERMONT, AS OUR FIRST AMBASSADOR TO THE UN.  THE CONGRESS ALSO SHOWED ITS MUSCLE BY PASSING THE TAFT HARTLEY ACT OVER TRUMAN’S VETO.    


But recently that deliberative character has too often been debased to the level of a forum of hate and character assassination sheltered by the shield of congressional immunity.


THE PURPOSE OF IMMUNITY IS NOT TO ALLOW SENATORS USE FALSE ACCUSATIONS INSTEAD OF REASON,  LOGIC, OR ADEQUATE RESEARCH ON A PARTICULAR ISSUE.  FOR SENATOR SMITH,   JOE MCCARTHY AND HIS SUPPORTERS WERE SIMPLY USING  CHARACTER DEFAMATION AS THE QUICKEST AND EASIEST WAY TO DISCREDIT THEIR OPPONENTS.  IT  INTIMATED PEOPLE AND THAT WAS THE CLEAR INTENT.


It is ironical that we Senators can in debate in the Senate directly or indirectly, by any form of words impute to any American, who is not a Senator, any conduct or motive unworthy or unbecoming an American — and without that non-Senator American having any legal redress against us — yet if we say the same thing in the Senate about our colleagues we can be stopped on the grounds of being out of order.

THE SENATORIAL IMMUNITY PROVISION IS A TWO LAYERED RULE WHICH A DEMAGOGUE CANNOT RESIST.  A SENATOR CAN SAY ANYTHING HE WANTS ABOUT A NON SENATOR.  YET AT THE SAME TIME, NO ONE IN THE SENATE CAN QUESTION HIS MOTIVES OR HONESTY.  IT IS A DOUBLE LAYER OF PROTECTION. 


It is strange that we can verbally attack anyone else without restraint and with full protection and yet we hold ourselves above the same type of criticism here on the Senate Floor.

THE ORIGINAL PURPOSE OF SENATORIAL IMMUNITY WAS TO ALLOW SENATORS TO FREELY EXPRESS THEIR VIEWS BUT TO KEEP THE DEBATE CIVIL  BY NOT ATTACKING EACH OTHER.  AT THIS POINT, JOE MCCARTHY AND SOME OF HIS COHORTS WERE ABUSING THE PRIVILEGE.  THE SENATORIAL PRIVILEGE WAS ACTUALLY LIMITING RATHER PROMOTING DEBATE.   THE PHRASE IN THE CONSTITUTION  ALSO PASSED AT A TIME WHEN COMMUNICATIONS WERE VERY BAD.   SENATORS WERE SOMETIMES NOT CERTAIN ABOUT THE VERACITY OF THEIR STATEMENTS. 


Surely the United States Senate is big enough to take self-criticism and self-appraisal.


THIS SENATORIAL IMMUNITY MAY FACILITATE DEBATE BUT CAN ALSO BE ILLOGICAL.  SHOULDN’T THE RULES FOR A SENATOR BE MUCH TIGHTER THAN THE GENERAL PUBLIC?  WHY SHOULD A PERSON IN PUBLIC LIFE, WHOSE STATEMENTS ARE OPEN TO EVERYONE, BE IMMUNE FROM CHARGES OF SLANDER? 


Surely we should be able to take the same kind of character attacks that we dish out to outsiders.


I WOULD LIKE TO TURN A PHRASE AROUND.  PEOPLE THROW STONES BECAUSE THEY LIVE IN GLASS HOUSES.  SENATOR MCCARTHY HAD A RATHER SHADY PAST INVOLVING HIS MILITARY SERVICE AND HIS FINANCIAL DEALINGS.  BEFORE HIS SPEECH IN WHEELING IN 1950,  HE HAD NO RECORD TO SPEAK OF.   IN ADDITION TO POINTING INDIRECTLY TO MCCARTHY, SENATOR SMITH ASKS THE ENTIRE SENATE TO BE AS CRITICAL OF ITSELF AS IT IS TO OTHERS. 


I think that it is high time for the United States Senate and its members to do some soul searching — for us to weigh our consciences — on the manner in which we are performing our duty to the people of America — on the manner in which we are using or abusing our individual powers and privileges.


NOTE THAT SENATOR SMITH IS USING THE WORDS “SOUL SEARCHING” AND “WEIGH OUR CONSCIENCES.”  BY USING ETHEREAL WORDS QUOTED, SMITH IS ASKING EACH SENATOR TO USE BOTH HIS HEAD AND ART IN EVALUATING THE MOOD OF THE SENATE AND THE ENTIRE COUNTRY.   SENATOR SMITH IS NOT ASKING FOR ANY LEGISLATIVE ACTION OR CHANGE IN THE CONSTITUTION.


I think that it is high time that we remembered that we have sworn to uphold and defend the Constitution. I think that it is high time that we remembered; that the Constitution, as amended, speaks not only of the freedom of speech but also of trial by jury instead of trial by accusation.

A PERSON SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THEIR OPINIONS, PHILOSOPHY,  OR LIFE STYLE PREFERENCE WITHOUT FEAR  OF DEATH, LOSING THEIR JOBS, OR GOING TO PRISON.  CITIZENS SHOULD GIVE EVIDENCE OF CRIMINAL CONDUCT OR ANY VIOLATIONS OF THE LAW-ONCE AGAIN, WITHOUT REVENGE FROM THE CRIMINAL ELEMENTS IN OUR COUNTRY. FREEDOM OF SPEECH DOES NOT MEAN DREAMING UP WILD UNSUBSTANTIATED  CHARGES. NOR SHOULD WE ALLOW PEOPLE TO USE PAST MISTAKES TO DISCREDIT THEIR OPPOSITIONS.  QUITE OFTEN, THE LINE BETWEEN TRUTH AND FALSE IS VERY FUZZY.


Whether it be a criminal prosecution in court or a character prosecution in the Senate, there is little practical distinction when the life of a person has been ruined.


EVEN HAVING TRIAL WITH A FAVORABLE VERDICT LEAVES THE DEFENDANT SCARED.  THE PUBLIC MAY WONDER IF IT WAS A MATTER OF NOT GETTING EVIDENCE, PERJURY, OR LACK OF PROCESCUTORIAL  SKILL.  NO ONE  HAS ANY RECOURSE AGAINST CHARGES A SENATOR MAKES .  A PERSON YEARS AGO OUT OF DESPERATION MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING THEY NOW REGRET.   DURING THE DEPRESSION, MANY OTHERWISE GOOD PEOPLE TURNED TO THE COMMUNIST PARTY SIMPLY BECAUSE IT MADE PROMISES OF A BETTER LIFE. 


Those of us who shout the loudest about Americanism in making character assassinations are all too frequently those who, by our own words and acts, ignore some of the basic principles of Americanism —


DURING THE IRAN CONTRA HEARING, SENATOR WARREN RUDMAN PUT IT A DIFFERENT WAY.  “I AM TIRED OF PEOPLE WRAPPING THEMSELVES AROUND THE FLAG AND SPITTING ON THE CONSTITUTION.”  SENATOR MCCARTHY AND HIS FRIENDS WERE MAKING CHARGES SIMPLY BECAUSE PEOPLE WERE DIFFERENT, DID NOT HONOR TRADITIONS, OR WERE CRITICAL OF SOME AGENCY.  THIS IS NOT AGAINST THE LAW.  NOR IS FINDING FAULT WITH YOUR COUNTRY EVIDENCE OF TREASON.


The right to criticize;


NO IDEA, NO LAW, NO ACTION SHOULD BE ABOVE QUESTION OR CRITICISM.   THAT IS THE ONLY WAY TO ASSURE IT DOES THE GREATEST GOOD FOR THE MOST PEOPLE.  EVERY PERSON SHOULD BE FREE TO EXPRESS THEIR VIEWS EVEN IF ONLY PART OF A LARGER GROUP.   


The right to hold unpopular beliefs;

The right to protest;
The right of independent thought.
The exercise of these rights should not cost one single American citizen his reputation or his right to a livelihood nor should he be in danger of losing his reputation or livelihood merely because he happens to know some one who holds unpopular beliefs. Who of us doesn’t? Otherwise none of us could call our souls our own. Otherwise thought control would have set in.

THE ABOVE SENTENCES GO TOGETHER SINCE EVERYONE HAS BEEN AND WILL BE IN THIS POSITION AT SOME POINT.   IF NOT, A PERSON HAS NOT BEEN THINKING OR HAD ANY SEMBLANCE OF LIFE.   ALL OF US HAVE HELD UNPOPULAR VIEWS AND CAUSE TO PROTEST.  THOUGHTS ARE UNIQUE TO EACH INDIVIDUAL.  IF THESE CONDITIONS COULD TERMINATE EMPLOYMENT, ONLY ROBOTS WOULD BE WORKING.  WE WOULD LOSE OUR OWN SPIRIT AND BE AFRAID TO THINK MUCH LESS ACT ON OUR OWN CONVICTIONS.  THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO LOSE THE POWER TO THINK EVEN IF WE WERE AFRAID TO VOICE AND WRITE OUR VIEWS.  THOUGHTS NEED  EXPRESSION IN WRITING FOR US TO BE  AWARE OF THE LOGIC OF OUR POSITION.  THIS IS TRUE EVEN IF KEPT TO OURSELVES.  THERE IS ANOTHER FAR MORE DANGEROUS IMPLICATION.  NONE OF WANTS TO BELIEVE  OUR GOVERNMENT IS CAPABLE OF CENSORSHIP, INTIMIDATION, OR REVENGE.  IT FRIGHTENS US TO THINK OUR COUNTRY COULD DEGENERATE INTO COMMUNIST OR FASCIST FORMS.   SO WE PUT ANY NOTIONS OR IDEAS OUT OF OUR MIND.  HAVEN’T WE ALL JUST CLOSED OUR MINDS TO THE FAULTS OF OUR RELATIVES MERELY BECAUSE WE CANNOT DEAL WITH THEM.       


The American people are sick and tired of being afraid to speak their minds lest they be politically smeared as “Communists” or “Fascists” by their opponents.


THE QUICK, EASY, AND BRAINLESS WAY TO DISCREDIT OPPONENTS IS TO BRAND THEM EXTREMISTS OR  SYMPATHETIC TO THE FORMS OF GOVERNMENT MENTIONED ABOVE.  IF SOMEONE CRITICIZES A SOCIAL PROGRAM SUCH AS SCHOOL LUNCHES  OR HOUSING, THOSE ON THE LEFT CHARGE THEM WITH FASCISM,  LACK OF CONCERN FOR PEOPLE, AND PLAIN CRUELTY.   IF ANOTHER QUESTIONS A MILITARY DEPLOYMENT,  NEW WEAPONS SYSTEM, OR PENTAGON WASTE, MANY ACCUSE THAT PERSON OF WEAKENING OUR DEFENSE POSTURE, SELLING OUT THEIR COUNTRY, AND CLAIMING THERE WILL BE DANCING ON THE STREETS OF MOSCOW.   BOTH OF THESE EXTREMES APPEAL TO DEMAGOGUES SINCE THERE ARE JUST TOO LAZY TO EXAMINE VALID NEEDS, ESTIMATE COSTS, AND COUNTER OPPONENTS ARGUMENTS.   


Freedom of speech is not what it used to be in America


PRIOR PERIODS  OF REPRESSION AND LOSS OF CIVIL LIBERTIES WE KNOW EXISTED BEFORE THE 50S.  DURING WORLD WAR I, THERE WAS THE DEPLORABLE TREATMENT OF GERMAN AND IRISH AMERICANS.  MANY LARGE CORPORATIONS AND THE GOVERNMENT ITSELF BEAT UP LABORERS WANTING A BETTER STANDARD OF  LIVING.  THIS RED SCARE CAME AFTER THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA.  IN THE 30S, OUR COUNTRY WAS OPEN TO MORE NEW IDEAS.  THE DEPRESSION CAUSED OUR LEADERS AND THE PUBLIC TO RETHINK PAST POLICIES TO PROVIDE RELIEF AND PREVENT A RECURRENCE OF THIS SUFFERING.  SOMETHING WAS WRONG IN OUR SYSTEM AND THE NEW DEAL HAD SOME SUCCESS AFTER THIS.  NOW SENATOR SMITH SAYS THE UNITED STATES IS REVERTING TO ITS THINKING DURING WORLD WAR I.  


ALL OF THIS MAY BE TRUE.  NEVERTHELESS, I THINK THE SENATOR MEANS MORE THIS.   CERTAIN PEOPLE ARE GIVEN FREEDOM OF SPEECH A MEANING NOT ORIGINALLY INTENDED.  THIS LAST THING IT MEANS IS TO SLANDER PEOPLE, MAKE VAGUE AND SOMETIMES FAKE CHARGES, AND TO DISCREDIT VALID DISSENT OR NEW IDEAS AS COMMUNIST INSPIRED.  NOTE THE NEXT SENTENCE.        


It has been so abused by some that it is not exercised by others.


THIS IS A WELL TURNED PHRASE TO AN OLD PROBLEM.  FREEDOM OF SPEECH  DOES MEAN SPREADING SLANDER, LIES, HALF TRUTHS, AND EXPOSING PAST MISTAKES JUST TO DISCREDIT OTHERS.  THESE TACTICS CREATE A CLIMATE OF FEAR RESULTING MANY OTHERS SIMPLY REFUSING TO EXPRESS THEIR VIEWS AND TASTES AND LIVE AS THEY SEE FIT.  WORST YET, THESE OTHERWISE GOOD PEOPLE MAY COUNTER CHARGE  RECKLESSLY, MAKING FOR A CONSTANT CLIMATE OF FEAR AND SUSPICION.


DRIVING REQUIRES A LICENSE WITH THE RESPONSIBILITY TO OBEY TRAFFIC LAWS .  SUPPOSE A BAND OF DRIVERS GREATLY EXCEED THE SPEED LIMIT, WEAVE BETWEEN LANES, SLOW DOWN THEN RACE, PULL OVER OFF AND BACK ON THE ROAD, AND CONTINUALLY HONK-AND THIS OCCURS AT RANDOM INTERVALS OVER A PROTRACTED TIME PERIOD.  MANY DRIVERS MAY NOT USE THAT ROAD OR DRIVE IN THE SAME MANNER JUST TO SURVIVE.             


The American people are sick and tired of seeing innocent people smeared and guilty people whitewashed.


JOE MCCARTHY AND  HIS SUPPORTS CAUSED PEOPLE TO LOSE THEIR REPUTATIONS, EMPLOYMENT,  AND CREDIBILITY.  THERE WERE EVEN SUICIDES.  I AM LESS CERTAIN ABOUT THE PHRASE “GUILTY PEOPLE WHITEWASHED.” I AM NOT AWARE OF ANYONE WHOSE COMMUNIST SYMPATHIES WENT UNNOTICED.  SHE MAY HAVE MEANT THE FOLLOWING:


–THE PEOPLE WHO MAKING WILD FAKE CHARGES WERE THE REAL CULPRITS AND THEY WERE HAVING A FIELD DAY,

–NO DOUBT, IN OUR GOVERNMENT AFTER WORLD WAR II, THERE WERE MANY PEOPLE WHO DID NOT UNDERSTAND   AND FACE UP TO THE REAL COMMUNIST THREAT ESPECIALLY IN CHINA, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND EASTERN EUROPE,

–SENATOR SMITH MAY BE SAYING SHE IS DETERMINED TO ROOT OUT COMMUNISTS IN OUR COUNTRY BUT NOT IN A HAPHAZARD MANNER LUMPING THE INNOCENT WITH THE GUILTY.        


But there have been enough proved cases to cause nationwide distrust and strong suspicion that there may be something to the unproved, sensational accusations.


THE CONVICTION OF ALGER HISS WAS THE MAJOR CASE OF A MAN WHO PASSED ON SECRETS TO THE SOVIETS.  MANY STILL FEEL THE HISS CASE WAS ON FLIMSY EVIDENCE.  THIS TOGETHER WITH THE OBVIOUS THREAT FROM THE SOVIETS AND CHINESE CAUSED THIS DISTRUST AND SUSPICION.  SHE DOES NOT WANT TO SEE ANYONE CONVICTED ONLY ON THE BASIS OF GENERAL MISTRUST.


As a Republican, I say to my colleagues on this side of the aisle that the Republican Party faces a challenge today that is not unlike the challenge that it faced back in Lincoln’s day. The Republican Party so successfully met that challenge that it emerged from the Civil War as the champion of a united nation — in addition to being a Party that unrelentingly fought loose spending and loose programs.


THIS IS PARTLY PARTISANSHIP AND PART TRUTH.  ABRAHAM LINCOLN WANTED TO SAVE THE UNION, END SLAVERY, AND ESTABLISH A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.  THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS ELECTED AFTER LINCOLN WERE MEDIOCRE AND IN NO WAY REFLECTED HIS IDEALS.  THEY WON MOSTLY BECAUSE OF THE BITTERNESS AGAINST THE SOUTH AFTER THE CIVIL WAR. THE EIGHT YEARS UNDER ULYSSES S. GRANT WERE A COMPLETE TRAGEDY.  WILLIAM MCKINLEY, WINNING IN 1896, BROKE THIS TRADITION AND WAS A CAPABLE PRESIDENT.  REFERRING TO THE REPUBLICANS AFTER LINCOLN, 1865 TO 1896, MCS IS JUST TO CEMENT TIES WITH HER REPUBLICANS COHORTS IN A HISTORICAL CONTEXT. 


Today our country is being psychologically divided by the confusion and the suspicions that are bred in the United States Senate to spread like cancerous tentacles of “know nothing, suspect everything” attitudes.


DISSENT IS VITAL IN A DEMOCRACY PROVIDED THE CITIZENS STAY WITHIN  THE CONFINES OF THE CONSTITUTION.  BLINDLY ACCUSING OTHERS OF  TREASON, DISLOYALTY, OR AIDING THE ENEMY CREATES ONGOING CONFUSION AND SUSPICION.   DEMOCRACY CANNOT SURVIVE BUT WILL GRADUAL ERODE.  IT IS WISE TO GET KNOW SOMEONE BEFORE PLACING ANY TRUST IN THE SAID PERSON.  MANY PEOPLE LOOK ON OTHERS SUSPICION AT FIRST AND THAT IS  ENTIRELY PROPER.  HOWEVER, THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEING  WARY OF PEOPLE  AND SPREADING MALICIOUS CONCOCTED STORIES ABOUT THEM. THIS IS EXACTLY WAS SENATOR JOE MCCARTHY WAS DOING.     


Today we have a Democratic Administration that has developed a mania for loose spending and loose programs. History is repeating itself — and the Republican Party again has the opportunity to emerge as the champion of unity and prudence.
the record of the present Democratic Administration has provided us with sufficient campaign issues without the necessity of resorting to political smears. America is rapidly losing its position as leader of the world simply because the Democratic Administration has pitifully failed to provide effective leadership.

The Democratic Administration has completely confused the American people by its daily contradictory grave warnings and optimistic assurances — that show the people that our Democratic Administration has no idea of where it is going.
The Democratic Administration has greatly lost the confidence of the American people by its complacency to the threat of communism here at home and the leak of vital secrets to Russia through key officials of the Democratic Administration. There are enough proved cases to make this point without diluting our criticism with unproved charges. Surely these are sufficient reasons to make it clear to the American people that it is time for a change and that a Republican victory is necessary to the security of this country. Surely it is clear that this nation will continue to suffer as long as it is governed by the present ineffective Democratic Administration.

SENATOR SMITH ACTUALLY SUPPORTED MOST OF PRESIDENT TRUMAN’S IDEAS. MANY REGARD HARRY TRUMAN AS ONE OF OUR GREAT PRESIDENTS, ESPECIALLY IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS.  WHILE THESE STATEMENTS ARE PARTISAN, SENATOR SMITH WANTED OTHERS TO KNOW SHE WAS AND WOULD REMAIN A LOYAL REPUBLICAN . MCCARTHYISM AND MINDLESS RED BAITING HAD BIPARTISAN SUPPORT BUT THE REPUBLICANS STARTED THE WHOLE MESS. IN PART THIS WAS OF THE 1948 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, WHERE CONTRARY TO ALL PREDICTIONS,   HARRY TRUMAN DEFEATED TOM DEWEY.  MANY REPUBLICANS BELIEVED A STRONG ANTI-COMMUNISM SENTIMENT WAS A WINNING ISSUE.    BY 1952, TWO YEARS AWAY FROM THIS SPEECH, THE DEMOCRATS WOULD HOLD THE PRESIDENCY FOR 20 YEARS.  WHILE I LIKED ADLAI STEVENSON, THERE WAS  LOGIC TO VOTING REPUBLICAN IN 52 JUST FOR THE SAKE OF CHANGE. NO ONE KNOWS HOW MUCH INFORMATION AMERICANS LEAKED TO THE SOVIETS MUCH LESS ITS VALUE. I BELIEVE SENATOR SMITH IS WRONG WHEN SHE SAYS “AMERICA IS LOSING ITS POSITION AS LEADER OF THE FREE WORLD”.  NO ONE ELECTED THE UNITED STATES THE LEADER OF THE WORLD.  EACH NATION SHOULD CHOOSE ITS OWN FORM OF GOVERNMENT.   AMERICAS HAVE USED THIS STATEMENT MANY TIMES OVER YEARS, WHICH IS ARROGANT.  BETTER WORDS WOULD  HAVE BEEN “AMERICA IS NOT SHOWING THE WORLD A GOOD EXAMPLE OF DEMOCRACY.”            


Yet to displace it with a Republican regime embracing a philosophy that lacks political integrity or intellectual honesty would prove equally disastrous to this nation. The nation sorely needs a Republican victory. But I don’t want to see the Republican Party ride to political victory on the Four Horsemen of Calumny — Fear, Ignorance, Bigotry and Smear.


SENATOR SMITH,  WITH THE FOUR HORSEMAN, ADDS A BIBLICAL REFERENCE TO HER SPEECH.  THIS IS FITTING SINCE THE FAR RIGHT WAS USING RELIGION TO JUSTIFY BASELESS  CHARGES OF COMMUNIST AFFILIATION.  LOYAL TO HER PARTY,  SHE WANTS AMERICANS TO VOTE REPUBLICAN IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, SOME  2 1/2 YEARS DOWN THE ROAD.  THIS GIVES ALL VOTERS AMPLE TIME TO THINK ABOUT THE PHILOSOPHY AND SPECIFIC ISSUES OF THE CAMPAIGN.  WHILE A REPUBLICAN VICTORY IS VITAL, SHE DOES NOT WANT HER PARTY TO USE THE BASE HUMAN CONDITIONS MENTION ABOVE.  THESE TACTICS SUBSTITUTE  EMOTION FOR LOGIC, OBSCURE THE REAL ISSUES, REDUCE DEBATE TO SLANDER, REQUIRE ATTACKING THE PERSON AND NOT THEIR PROPOSALS, AND APPEAL TO LAZY MINDS.  INSTEAD OF REFUTING  IDEAS WITH LOGIC AND FACTS, CANDIDATES QUESTION  A PERSON’S PATRIOTISM, BRAND HIM AN EXTREMIST OF THE RIGHT OR LEFT, BRING UP SORDID DETAILS FROM HIS PAST, OR EXAGGERATE A STATEMENT.


THIS CREATES A CLIMATE OF FEAR AND SUSPICIONS.  ONE OF THE TESTS FOR A DEMOCRACY  IS A BELIEF IN ANOTHER’S GOOD INTENTIONS AND PATRIOTISM IF NOT IDEAS.  MAKING BASELESS CHARGES CAN AND DID DESTROY REPUTATIONS, CAUSE LOSS OF JOBS, AND HAMPER THE FREE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS SO VITAL TO A DEMOCRACY.  USING THESE FOUR HORSEMAN OF CALUMNY WILL GRADUALLY DESTROY A COUNTRY.         


I doubt if the Republican Party could — simply because I don’t believe the American people will uphold any political party that puts political exploitation above national interest.


HERE SENATOR SMITH IS GIVING AMERICANS MORE CREDIT THAN THEY DESERVE.   IF THAT STATEMENT IS AN  ASSUMPTION, SHE WOULDN’T BE MAKING THIS ADDRESS , AT LEAST NOT NOW ON THIS ISSUE.  IT IS MORE OF A CHALLENGE TO CITIZENS, SPECIFICALLY REPUBLICANS, NOT TO LET THIS CRUEL RED BAITING CONTINUE.   AMERICANS GET WISE OR MAYBE JUST TIRED OF A DEMAGOGUE AND WILL REPUDIATE THEIR TACTICS.  THIS GENERALLY HAPPENS TOO LATE AFTER THESE INDIVIDUALS HAVE RUINED REPUTATIONS AND LIVES.  EVEN SO, VOTERS MAY TOLERATE UNETHICAL CONDUCT, DIRTY CAMPAIGN TACTICS, OR POOR ATTENDANCE FROM THEIR CONGRESSMEN IF THEY BRING LOTS OF MONEY INTO THEIR HOME BASE.  SENATOR SMITH IS HOPING,  AS LINCOLN STATED AT GETTYSBURG, THAT AMERICANS AND MEMBERS OF CONGRESS WILL PUT THE NATIONAL INTEREST AHEAD OF LOCAL POLITICS.  A VICTORY BASED ON LIES, GREED, AND STRICTLY PROVINCIAL INTEREST IS A GREAT WAY TO GRADUALLY ERODE OUR COUNTRY’S SENSE OF FREEDOM AND ECONOMIC SECURITY.


AS BAD AS POLITICAL EXPLOITATION IS IN CONGRESS, IT IS MUCH WORSE FOR THE PRESIDENT.   THE PUBLICITY IS OBVIOUSLY GREATER AND THE  ELECTORAL COLLEGE ENCOURAGES IT.    CANDIDATES PLAY, WITH EFFECTIVE UNDERSTATEMENT, GROUPS AND REGIONS AGAINST EACH OTHER. THEY CONCENTRATE SOLELY ON SWING STATES VIRTUALLY IGNORING THOSE THEY WILL MOST CERTAINLY LOSE OR WIN. 


ALLOT OF EXPLOITATION GOES ON AT SCHOOLS OR IN OFFICES.  KIDS CAN BE CRUEL BULLYING AND MAKING FUN OF OTHERS.  THE OFFICE ENVIRONMENT  IS EVEN WORSE. THINGS WILL ONLY IMPROVE IF PARENTS AND WORKERS SPEAK OUT AGAINST BULLYING AND DEVELOP WAYS TO COMBAT IT .


SENATOR SMITH WANTS TO REMAIN A LOYAL REPUBLICAN.  THOUGH BOTH PARTIES WERE GUILTY, MCCARTHYISM BEGAN WITH REPUBLICANS; SHE WANTS REPUBLICANS TO END IT.  MCCARTHY AND HIS SUPPORTS COULD CLAIM PARTISAN POLITICS IF DEMOCRATS ONLY SPOKE OUT.


Surely we Republicans aren’t that desperate for victory.


ONCE AGAIN, MCS IS GIVING BOTH REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS TOO MUCH CREDIT.  THE PREVIOUS STATEMENT IS  A CHALLENGE NOT A CORRECT ASSESSMENT. JOE MCCARTHY, A REPUBLICAN, GOT SUPPORT FROM HIS PARTY BECAUSE IT WAS A WINNING ISSUE. THE OVERCONFIDENT GOP BLEW THE 1948 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION.  ANGRY AND FRUSTRATED, RED BATING HAD APPEAL.  THE APPEAL WAS SO EVIDENT THAT DEMOCRATS SUPPORTED THESE TACTICS OR KEPT QUIET.  BIPARTISANSHIP IS NOT ALWAYS A GOOD THING;  CONSTRUCTIVE TENSION IS.


I don’t want to see the Republican Party win that way. While it might be a fleeting victory for the Republican Party, it would be a more lasting defeat for the American people. Surely it would ultimately be suicide for the Republican Party and the two-party system that has protected our American liberties from the dictatorship of a one party system.

A VICTORY BASED ON LIES, HALF TRUTH’S, AND EXPOSING FAULTS WITHOUT SUFFICIENT REASON  DOES NO GOOD.  CANDIDATES AND THEIR SUPPORTERS  ARE TELLING THE ELECTORATE THEY DESERVE THE OFFICE BECAUSE OF THE SHORTCOMINGS, REAL OR IMAGINED, OF THE OPPOSITION.  THIS IS WINNING  BY DEFAULT NOT ON MERIT OR PAST SUCCESS.  SUCH TACTICS OFTEN BACKFIRE, THOUGH MUCH TOO LATE.   SENATOR SMITH DOES NOT WANT TO SEE THE REPUBLICAN PARTY VANISH BECAUSE OF THIS FOOLISH RED BAITING AND SLANDER.   ONLY  ONE PARTY AT ANY LEVEL IS BAD; NATIONALLY, IT IS INTOLERABLE. 


TWICE WE HAVE SEEN PARTIES BECOME EXTINCT AND NEW ONES TAKE THEIR PLACE.  WHEN THE FEDERALIST PARTY LOST ITS BASE, MEMBERS WENT TO THE  DEMOCRATIC PARTY, BASICALLY IN THE SOUTH, OR FOR WANT OF BETTER WORDS, THE NORTHERNERS BECAME NATION REPUBLICANS. {THIS IS NOT SAME AS THE REPUBLICANS TODAY}  PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON WAS ABLE TO UNITE THESE TWO FACTIONS BUT NOT FOR LONG


THE WHIGS PARTY DEVELOPED BECAUSE OF OPPOSITION TO ONE OR MORE POLICIES OF PRESIDENT JACKSON.  WHILE ALL WERE AGAINST JACKSON, SOME WHIGS HAD MORE  AGREEMENT WITH JACKSON THAN WITH OTHER WHIGS.  IT WAS A VERY LOOSE PARTY WITH JUST A MAN TO OPPOSE OR HATE.   THIS WOULD NOT SUFFICE ESPECIALLY WITH THE HOT ISSUES IN PRE-CIVIL WAR AMERICA.  AS A RESULT, THE REPUBLICAN PARTY BECAME A REALITY AT RIPON, IN 1854.  THIS PARTY STRESSED OPPOSITION TO SLAVERY, THE RIGHTS OF ORGANIZED LABOR, PUBLIC EDUCATION, ANTI-SLAVERY, WESTWARD EXPANSION, INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS, A PROTECTIVE TARIFF, AND THE PRIMACY OF CITIES.


SENATOR SMITH WAS AWARE OF THIS METAMORPHOSIS.  BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR, THE COUNTRY WAS YOUNG, DIVIDED, LESS STRUCTURED, AND VERY RURAL.  SINCE 1865, TWO PARTIES, WITH AN OCCASIONAL THIRD PARTY, HELPED KEEP COALITIONS OF VOTERS TOGETHER.   THIRD PARTIES HAVE BEEN SHORT LIVED. THEY FORMED TO EMPHASIZE A SPECIFIC ISSUE; WHEN SOME VOTERS FELT THAT BOTH TWO PARTIES WERE TOO FAR TO THE LEFT OR RIGHT; OR SIMPLY BECAUSE OF PERSONALITIES.  SMITH IS UNCERTAIN IF THE UNITED STATES, FIRMLY SET AND SOMEWHAT STABLE, COULD REMAIN INTACT IF ONE PARTY,  DEMOCRAT OR REPUBLICAN, BECAME EXTINCT.


As members of the Minority Party, we do not have the primary authority to formulate the policy of our Government. But we do have the responsibility of rendering constructive criticism, of clarifying issues, of allaying fears by acting as responsible citizens.


I AM NOT CERTAIN WHAT SENATOR SMITH MEANS HERE.  HARRY TRUMAN WAS PRESIDENT AND DEMOCRATS HELD  MAJORITIES IN BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS.  IF YOUR UNDERSTATING IS THAT IF A PRESIDENT SUBMITS A PROPOSAL, HIS PARTY HIS PARTY IS IN THE MAJORITY IN BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS,  AND THIS ASSURES THAT MOST OF HIS PROPOSALS WILL PASS, THAT STATEMENT HOLDS.  I ALSO KNOW BOTH PARTIES, ESPECIALLY IN THE SENATE, PREPARE PAPERS AND TAKE STANCES WHICH ACCOUNT FOR ALL OF THE MEMBERS.  BUT A SENATOR REALLY OWES US MORE THAN THAT.  EACH SENATOR SHOULD SPEAK THEIR MINDS ON EACH BILL OR ANYTHING ELSE THAT IS RELEVANT.   SENATOR MCCARTHY, LIKE SMITH, WAS A  REPUBLICAN MEANING
HER STANCE HAD MORE CREDIBILITY.  SHE MAY ALSO SAY THE MINORITY PARTY SHOULD PUT A HALT TO SOMETHING WHICH THEY THEMSELVES STARTED.  

As a woman, I wonder how the mothers, wives, sisters and daughters feel about the way in which members of their families have been politically mangled in Senate debate — and I use the word ‘debate’ advisedly.


AS EARLIER STATED, POLITICS AND BUSINESS WERE MALE DOMINATED IN 1950.  BY USING WOMEN, SHE IS SAYING THIS ISSUE HAS GREAT IMPACT ON EVERY FAMILY.  WOMEN WERE FOR THE MOST PART SEEN AS A STABILIZING INFLUENCE ON THE FAMILY.  WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE, SCHOOLS BANNIING BOOKS; LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ENFORCING A RELIGIOUS PRACTICE; LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES CONDUCTING  NEEDLESS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS; AND FAMILIES LOSING THEIR RIGHT TO PRIVACY.    


As a United States Senator, I am not proud of the way in which the Senate has been made a publicity platform for irresponsible sensationalism. I am not proud of the reckless abandon in which unproved charges have been hurled from this side of the aisle. I am not proud of the obviously staged, undignified countercharges that have been attempted in retaliation from the other side of the aisle.
I don’t like the way the Senate has been made a rendezvous for vilification, for selfish political gain at the sacrifice of individual reputations and national unity. I am not proud of the way we smear outsiders from the Floor of the Senate and hide behind the cloak of congressional immunity and still place ourselves beyond criticism on the Floor of the Senate.

WHEN SENATOR SMITH TALKS ABOUT HER , OR THE REPUBLICAN SIDE, SHE IS COURSE REFERRING TO JOE MCCARTHY AND HIS SUPPORTERS.  AS FOR THE DEMOCRATS , THE MEANING IS MORE SIDED AND MURKY.  SHE MAY BE REFERRING TO THOSE DEMOCRATS FROM THE SOUTH WHO ARE RESISTING CIVIL RIGHTS PROGRESS. RECALL THEY FORMED A THIRD PARTY, WITH STROM THURMOND AS PRESIDENT, IN 1948.   PERHAPS SOME DEMOCRATS WERE GIVING MCCARTHY AND HIS FRIENDS SUPPORT.  THERE WAS CORRUPTION IN THE TRUMAN ADMINISTRATION;  HOWEVER, THAT HAPPENS WHEN ONE PARTY HAS BEEN IN POWER TOO LONG.  IT WOULD BE 20 YEARS BY 1952 AND DEMOCRATS MAY HAVE BEEN HESITANT TO CRITICIZE THE TRUMAN ADMINISTRATIONS.   SOME DEMOCRATS HAVE ALWAYS CRITICIZED OPPOSITION THEIR SOCIAL LEGISLATION AS UNCARING, FAVORING ONLY THE RICH, OR TURNING THEIR BACKS IN AMERICA’S PROBLEMS.  A STATED, THIS IS A QUICK AND BRAINLESS WAY TO DISCREDIT YOUR OPPONENTS.


I THINK HERE WE SHOULD APPLY OCCAM’S RAZOR.  PUT SIMPLY THIS MEANS THAT, WHEN RESEARCHING OR THINKING ABOUT THE CAUSE OF SOMETHING, THE SIMPLEST EXPLANATION IS LIKELY TO BE THE CORRECT, OR AT LEAST THE DOMINATE, CAUSE.  BY CRITICIZING DEMOCRATS,  SENATOR SMITH IS AFFIRMING  LOYALTY TO THE REPUBLICAN PARTY, BUT NOT TO  ALL OF ITS MEMBERS. 


As an American, I am shocked at the way Republicans and Democrats alike are playing directly into the Communist design of “confuse, divide and conquer.”


DISSENT AND CLASHING IDEAS ARE TO A DEMOCRACY LIKE BLOOD IS TO THE HUMAN BODY.  WITHOUT DIFFERENCES, DEMOCRACY WOULD BE NONEXISTENT.  LACKING CAUTION OR RESPECT, PEOPLE OFTEN ATTACK THE INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP TO DISCREDIT OPPOSITION.  THIS IS AN EASY WAY TO AVOID RESEARCH, UNDERSTANDING, AND, LOGIC.  CALUMNY, WILD FAKE CHARGES, TAKING STATEMENTS OUT OF CONTEXT, AND BRINGING UP ANOTHER’S PAST MISTAKES WITHOUT CAUSE CREATE AN ATMOSPHERE OF SUSPICION, MISTRUST, AND FEAR.  THESE UNDERMINE OUR FREEDOM AND THE CONSITUTION ITSELF.  THESE ARE THE VERY THING TOTALITARIAN REGIMES WANT.  INSTEAD OF TRYING TO IMPROVE OUR SOCIETY, AMERICANS WIND UP FIGHTING EACH OTHER.  THE RIGHT CONCERNED ITSELF WITH THE DOMESTIC SCENE, WHERE COMMUNISM WAS WEAK, THAN WITH THOSE AREAS OF THE WORLD WHERE IT WAS STRONG AND THREATENING.     


As an American, I don’t want a Democratic Administration “white wash” or “cover up” any more than I want a Republican smear or witch hunt.
As an American, I condemn a Republican “Fascist” just as much as I condemn a Democrat “Communist.” I condemn a Democrat “fascist” just as much as I condemn a Republican “Communist.” They are equally dangerous to you and me and to our country. As an American, I want to see our nation recapture the strength and unity it once had when we fought the enemy instead of ourselves.

WE HAVE A GREAT SUMMARY OF THE SPEECH.  SENATOR SMITH AFFIRMS HER BELIEFS IN THE RULE OF LAW; WANTS TO REMOVE FROM THE GOVERNMENT ANY PERSON WHO HAS, THROUGH  DESIGN OR INCOMPETENCE, DEGRADED OUR NATIONAL SECURITY. AT SAME TIME,  SHE DOES NOT WANT TO SMEAR INNOCENT PEOPLE OR DENY BASIC CIVIL LIBERTIES WITHOUT SPECIFIC EVIDENCE.  CUSTOMS ARE NOT LAWS AND NO ONE HAS TO FOLLOW THEM.   THE PUBLIC SHOULD WELCOME NEW IDEAS IN BOOK, MOVIES, OR PLAYS  WITH ANY OPEN.  THE CONCEPT OF SELF GOVERNMENT IN 1776 WAS A NEW RADICAL IDEA.  A BASIC CONCEPT OF DEMOCRACY-PEOPLE SHOULD BE OPEN TO NEW IDEAS SINCE THEY ARE VITAL TO EVERY SOCIETY.  SENATOR SMITH CONDEMNS  EXTREMISM BE IT FROM OR RIGHT LEFT AND REGARDLESS OF THE PARTY THAT ORIGINATES IT.  THIS MAY SOUND POMPOUS AND IDEALISTIC.  BUT WHERE WOULD BE BE WITHOUT OUR IDEALS.



It is with these thoughts I have drafted what I call a “Declaration of Conscience.” I am gratified that Senator Tobey, Senator Aiken, Senator Morse, Senator Ives, Senator Thye and Senator Hendrickson, have concurred in that declaration and have authorized me to announce their concurrence.”

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