The Children’s Charter of 1930

President Herbert Hoover in 1930 called a Conference on Children Health and Protection.  The Children’s Charter, an outcome of this conference , serves a a statement of policies and programs to better the conditions of all children.   The President made it clear that this was not a substitute for parenting.   Nevertheless, there are activities to help parents and children that are within the public purview; or stated another way a proper area of government responsibility. ————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————–

By the early 20th century, urbanization and industrialization led many reformers to focus on child welfare and a recognition of children’s rights as separate from those of adults. Several years later, Congress responded by creating the U.S. Children’s Bureau designed to report on “all matters” related to the “welfare of children and child life.” The bureau was the first federal agency in the world mandated to focus solely on the interests of a nation’s youngest citizens. By 1930, the White House Conference on Child Health and Protection spelled out the specific rights of modern childhood in this Children’s Charter. Does this charter specify rights unique to children? How could the rights in this charter be fulfilled?

Source

1930 Children’s Charter, White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, 1930, U.S. Children’s Bureau Files, National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

Primary Source Text

The Children’s Charter, White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, November 22, 1930

PRESIDENT HOOVER’S WHITE HOUSE CONFERENCE ON CHILD HEALTH AND PROTECTION, RECOGNIZING THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD AS THE FIRST RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP, PLEDGES ITSELF TO THESE AIMS FOR THE CHILDREN OF AMERICA.

  • I. FOR every child spiritual and moral training to help him to stand firm under the pressure of life.
  • II. For every child understanding and the guarding of his personality as its most precious right.
  • III. For every child a home and that love and security which a home provides; and for that child who must receive foster care, the nearest substitute for his own home.
  • IV. For every child full preparation for his birth, his mother receiving prenatal, natal, and postnatal care; and the establishment of such protective measures as will make child-bearing safer.
  • V. For every child health protection from birth through adolescence, including: periodical health examinations and, where needed, care of specialists and hospital treatment; regular dental examinations and care of the teeth; protective and preventive measures against communicable diseases; the insuring of pure food, pure milk, and pure water.
  • VI. For every child from birth through adolescence, promotion of health, including health instruction, and a health program, wholesome physical and mental recreation, with teachers and leaders adequately trained.
  • VII. For every child a dwelling-place safe, sanitary, and wholesome, with reasonable provisions for privacy; free from conditions which tend to thwart his development; and a home environment harmonious and enriching.
  • VIII. For every child a school which is safe from hazards, sanitary, properly equipped, lighted, and ventilated. For younger children nursery schools and kindergartens to supplement home care.
  • IX. For every child a community which recognizes and plans for his needs, protects him against physical dangers, moral hazards, and disease; provides him with safe and wholesome places to play and recreation; and makes provision for his cultural and social needs.
  • X. For every child an education which, through the discovery and development of his individual abilities, prepares him for life; and through training and vocational guidance prepares him for a living which will yield him maximum satisfaction.
  • XI. For every child such teaching and training as will prepare him for successful parenthood, home-making, and the rights of citizenship; and for parents, supplementary training to fit them to deal wisely with the problems of parenthood.
  • XII. For every child education for safety and protection against accidents to which modern conditions subject him—those to which he is directly exposed and those which, through loss or maiming of his parents, affect him directly.
  • XIII. For every child who is blind, deaf, crippled, or otherwise physically handicapped, and for the child who is mentally handicapped, such measures as will early discover and diagnose his handicap, provide care and treatment, and so train him the he may become an asset to society rather than a liability. Expenses of these services should be borne publicly where they cannot be privately met.
  • XIV. For every child who is in conflict with society the right to be dealt with intelligently as society’s charge, not society’s outcast; with the home, the school, the church, the court and the institution when needed, shaped to return him whenever possible to the normal stream of life.
  • XV. For every child the right to grow up in a family with an adequate standard of living and the security of a stable income as the surest safeguard against social handicaps.
  • XVI. For every child protection against labor that stunts growth, either physical or mental, that limits education, that deprives children of the right of comradeship, of play, and of joy.
  • XVII. For every rural child as satisfactory schooling and health services as for the city child, and an extension to rural families of social, recreational, and cultural facilities.
  • XVIII. To supplement the home and the school in the training of youth, and to return to them those interests of which modern life tends to cheat children, every stimulation and encouragement should be given to the extension and development of the voluntary youth organizations.
  • XIX. To make everywhere available these minimum protections of the health and welfare of children, there should be a district, county, or community organization for health, education, and welfare, with full-time officials, coordinating with a state-wide program which will be responsive to a nationwide service of general information, statistics, and scientific research.
    This should include:

    1. a.) Trained, full-time public health officials, with public health nurses, sanitary inspection, and laboratory workers
    2. b.) Available hospital beds
    3. c.) Full-time public welfare service for the relief, aid, and guidance of children in special need due to poverty, misfortune, or behavior difficulties, and for the protection of children from abuse, neglect, exploitation, or moral hazard.

FOR EVERY CHILD THESE RIGHTS, REGARDLESS OF RACE, OR COLOR, OR SITUATION, WHEREVER HE MAY LIVE UNDER THE PROTECTION OF THE AMERICAN FLAG.

Dick Vermeil-Philadelphia Icon

Dick Vermeil, 30 years after going to the Super Bowl, remains a Philadelphia icon.   His attitude, enthusiasm, and cautious optimism were contagious and the team began to think it could win shorty after he arrived.  Some cursory observations.  I will give details later.

The team improved every until getting to the Super Bowl in 1980.  While not creating a dynasty, he broke the losing tradition. Each year there were some positive memories.

1976  Won 4 Lost 10

–signed Vince Papale, a walk on from St Joseph’s College;  this guy became hometown hero and sparked the team with his great special teams play;
–shut out the New York Giants in week eight 10 to 0;  their first whitewash since Thanksgiving Day of 1968; Defensive Back Randy Logan was superb against the run stopping both Larry Csonka and Doug Kotar;
–defeated the Seattle Seahawks 27 to 10  week 14 at Veterans Stadium, breaking a five game losing streak;  both Tom Sullivan and Mike Hogan ran for over 100 years; that is the first I can ever remember two Eagle runners doing that in a single game;
–In the win over Seattle, Roman Gabriel went 10 for 13 for 165 yards; that was really his last game; Gabriel threw only three passes held the ball for field goal and extra points the following year.

1977 Win 5 Lost 9

–traded Charlie Young to the Los Angeles Rams for Ron Jaworski
–drafted Wilbert Montgomery from Abilene Christian
–though Philadelphia was only one game better than in 1976, the record does not tell the whole story.  All but two of the losses were very close with two or three plays making the difference;
–the Eagles, for the first time in 10 years, won on opening day; at home against Tampa Bay 13 to 3;
–the defense was the main reason for the improved play; from 1976 sacks increased from 19 to 47 and interceptions from 9 to 21 ;
–Wilbert Montgomery’s breakout was game 13 at Veteran’s Stadium vs the New York Giants; he returned the second half kickoff 101 yards for a touchdown; Jaworski bootlegged one yard for the winning score with 29 seconds left; Eagles defeated the Giants 17 to 14, halting a four game losing streak;
–it was a soggy rain soaked day at Veterans Stadium with the New York Jets; in his first start Wilbert Montgomery gained 103 yards and scored a touchdown; the defense sacked Jets quarterback Richard Todd seven times, intercepted three passes, and recovered a fumble.  After going eight years without a shut out, Philadelphia got two in as many years.  Philadelphia 27 New York Jets 0
–as indicated, the Philadelphia Eagles won the last two games; that was the first time back to back wins in three years.

1978 Won 9 Lost 7

–This was the year of the “Miracle of the Meadowland.”  With 30 second left, Herman Edwards picked up a foolish hand off and returned the ball 26 yards for a touchdown.   While this was a game the Eagles should have lost, there were three losses should have been victories; at home 16 to 14 to the Los Angeles Rams and 16 to 10 to the St. Louis Cardinals; and 28 to 27 to the Minnesota Vikings on the road.  The team either failed or allowed a score with less than one minute left in those three games.
–Ron Jaworkski really matured as a passer and Wilbert Montgomery became one of the league’s best running backs; the angular Harold Carmichael continued his great pass receiving,
–for first time in the Vermeil era, the Philadelphia Eagles defeated a playoff contender, the Miami Dolphins 17 to 3; they held two other opponents to a field goal also with all three at home; the Green Bay Packers 10 to 3 and the New York Giants 20 to 3.
–the Eagles had a four game winning streak, their longest in four years,
–that 20 to 3 win over the Giants was the final game, giving them their first winning season in 12 years; both Montgomery and Mike Hogan gained over 100 yards,
–the Atlanta Falcons scored two touchdowns in the last three minutes to beat them in the Wild Card game 14 to 13; but it still was the first post season action since 1960 Championship.

1979 Won 11 Lost 5

–Philadelphia just continued to improve in all facets tying the Dallas for the best record in the NFC East,
–unfortunately Dallas won the complicated tie breaker, meaning the Eagles had no BYE week and had to play the Wild Card Game-
–the Eagles won six of their first seven including a 17 to 14 win at home over the Pittsburgh Steelers,
–the Eagles made three turnovers in the second  half which was the difference in the game,
–the Pittsburgh win was the first time the Philadelphia had beaten a team that eventually won the Super Bowl,
— after the 6-1 start, the Eagles lost three in a row, one at home vs the Cleveland Browns was winnable; Ron Jaworksi’s two interceptions from inside the Cleveland 20 at the end of the first half and fourth quarter were the difference,
–the Eagles broke the three game losing fling with a 31 to 21 win over the Dallas Cowboys on Monday night; this was the first win over the Cowboys in five years and the first at Dallas in 14 years,
–the game marked the beginning of the Philadelphia-Dallas rivalry,
–on a Saturday Afternoon national telecast, the Eagles lost to Dallas 24 to 17, ending the  four game streak that began in Dallas,
–two of the five losses, to Atlanta and Cleveland, should have been victories.  Has the Eagles won, they would have had the BYE week and the home field advantage. The Super Bowl was within reach,
–the Eagles at home beat the Chicago Bears 27 to 17, their first post season victory since 1960,
–over confident, the Philadelphia Eagles lost at Tampa Bay 24 to 17.

1980 Won 12 Lost 4

–Despite losing Wilbert Montgomery for five games, the Eagles again to tied Dallas for first place in the NFC East Dallas.   The team was superb in every respect and Ron Jaworski was named player of the year,
–This time the tie breaker went the the Eagles not Dallas,
–There were two big wins both at home,
–Philadelphia Eagles defeated Dallas 17 to 10 in a turnover filled game; Dallas’ only score came on defense,
–the  Eagles defeated the Oakland Raiders 10 to 7. Their only defensive miscue was an 86 yard pass from Jim Plunkett to Cliff Branch to give the Raiders a 7 to 3 advantage;
–Jaworski’s 40 yard pass to Leory Harris set up the winning score; the Eagles won 10 yo 7.
–for the second straight year, the Eagles defeated a Super Bowl bound team, this time the Raiders, (see last highlight)
–Philadelphia earned the BYE week and the home field advantage throughout the playoffs,
–the Eagles defeated the Minnesota Vikings 31 to 16 in the semifinals,
–later I will detail to 20 to 7 victory over Dallas in the NFC Championship game.
–unfortunately, the team Oakland beat in the Super Bowl was the Eagles.

 

Three Old Gristmills

I always enjoyed visiting gristmills as a vivid reminder of Early America. These mills all have some beautiful grounds and sometimes permanent and changing art exhibits and concerts. The musty wood smell of these places adds to the atmosphere.

Philadelphia Area

Brandywine River Museum.  This is northwest on the subject river about 12 miles from Wilmington, De.  Permanent exhibits are of America’s best known frontier artists, Andrew Wyteth and his son Jaime.  The Brandywine Valley was a strategic area of fighting during the Revolutionary War.  The Wyteths made certain we remember the area for the horrors of war and for natural beauty of the Eastern Frontier. While having a romantic charm, the pictures depict the realism and harshness of a bygone area.  This is true of both their still life or showing farmers  working in the fields with cattle and horses.

I believe the Andrew and Jamie Wyteth were the first two to give American art its unique expression; just as Benjamin Franklin was the first to give America its unique character.  Franklin did this for his knowledge in almost every area in the arts and sciences.  Specifically important in the struggle for independence were his writing of Albany Plan of Union.  After that, Franklin was both the first newspaperman and the first postman in the colonies.  His Albany Plan was the framework for both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.  The second two established communication among the 13 colonies.  Communications are the first step in every political movement.

Certainly there were other artists who painted subjects surrounding the Colonial and Federal period   Virtually all, at least to me, were of our leaders in the battlefield, working together on political issues, or just plain portraits of Washington, Jefferson, Hamilton, or Franklin as symbols of American freedom.  Andrew and Janie Wyteth showed pictures of farmers or households just trying to earn a living.  This is something the working public, of both today and earlier times, can relate to.

The grounds the Brandywine Mill are beautiful.  I have never seen a demonstration of the mill but the River seems to move very slowly.  In season, they sell flower as well as garden plants.  One time I bought 60 tomato plants and brought them back to Virginia.  I gave them out to the whole neighborhood.
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Washington, DC Area

Pierce Mill is the Rock Creek Park in Washington DC along a creek of the same name.  Because of the tall dense tress, it is impossible to appreciate how close you are to the city itself. The Watergate and the Kennedy Center are less than a ten minutes away.  There are no ground at all to Pierce Mill just the parking lot.  Farmers brought their crops here mostly from Maryland since this is where Rock Creek begins.  The exhibits were of modern art with neon lights.  This is not what I expected from a gristmill but I enjoyed it anyway.   The contrast that strikes you the most;  here you have a mill which began in 1820 with cars whizzing by on the Rock Creek Parkway.

Colvin Mill Run.  This is in McLean Va right off of Route 7 going west.  Unlike Pierce Mill, this way off the road and slightly elevated;  but you can still see the cars and hear the noise.  The water comes from Colvin Creek, goes past the mill, flows into Difficult Run, and finally dumps into the Potomac River. This is where I have seen the actual demonstration of the mill both from the outside and going below to watch the wheels.  Colvin Mill Run has a blacksmith’s shop, a large area with picnic tables, movable stands for people to watch and hear concerts, and a Miller’s House. This house is for appearance only and is never in use.

I will talk about the mill and historic house in Winchester, Va later.  

Herbert Hoover-War and Famine Relief

When earlier talking about the Hoover-Philadelphia connection, I began with 1932. Philadelphia was the only major city that Hoover carried in that depression era election. Let me summarize his life prior to 1932 in segments.

After making a fortune mining in every continent, Hoover devoted the rest of his life to public service. This gave him national recognition. Perhaps Hoover was thinking of running for office in the future. He headed the Committee for the Relief of Belgium after the German occupation on their way to France in World War I. Many countries, especially England, did not want to aid Belgium; any assistance would ease the burden on Germany. Hoover and his aids did not want a neutral country to suffer. Through persistence, taking the high moral road, and numerous trips between Berlin and London, all sides agreed to let neutral ships into Belgian ports.

Herbert Hoover urged President Wilson to stay out of the war. He saw no real difference between the aggressive aims of each country. Wilson gradually gave more aid to the Allied Powers and, under dubious grounds, requested and received a Declaration of War on Germany and Austria-Hungary from Congress. After our entrance into the war, Herbert Hoover returned home to serve as Food Administrator and Special Adviser to the President. His first advice was to raise taxes rather than issue bonds to finance the war. Wilson once again did not take Hoover’s advice and the deficit hurt America in the post World War I era. Hoover did well in managing food supplies between domestic, military, and foreign needs. “To Hooverize” was a popular phrase during World War I. Hoover gave public support to President Wilson, even though he advised against both the war itself and method of financing it.

During the post war period, Herbert Hoover’s talents, already recognized, enhanced his reputation. He headed relief efforts in defeated countries, giving special attention Poland and Germany. Both countries honored him with honorary citizenship in his Post Presidential Years. The real problem came with aid to the Soviet Union after the Communists deposed the Czar. There was a “Red Scare” in this country just similar to the one in the early 50s. During the World War I, the United States unfairly curtailed the civil liberties of German and Irish Americans, organized labor, and war protestors. This, while never justified, continued after WWI. A. Mitchell Palmer, Wilson’s Attorney General, made a mockery of the constitution. Nevertheless through persistence, constant pressure, and appeals to basic humanitarian instincts, Herbert Hoover provided aid for Soviet famine relief. “Never mind their politics,” Hoover stated, “they shall be fed.”

Greater challenges would follow dealing with the Heads of State at Versailles, specifically President Wilson. More Later 

Abolition of the Electoral College

It is well past the time for  the United States to abandon the electoral college and elect the President and Vice President through popular vote.  The electoral system was fine in frontier days when vote counting was crude and the average voter knew almost nothing about public affairs. 

The current winner take all system by state forces the presidential nominees to concentrate on the swing states and gave inadequate to states they will most likely win or lose.  Candidates tailor their speeches to the crowd and often make contradictory remarks which undermine the entire system’s credibility.  In 2008, I did not like John McCain virtually ignoring Illinois and Massachusetts anymore than Barack Obama doing likewise to Arizona and Texas.  Indulge me this really basic statement we all know.  The President and the Vice President are the only offices in the country that all voters choose.  As such, they should represent the policies and programs that appeal to everyone.

One vote must  mean the same regardless of the state where it comes from.  This nation is already badly divided along racial, economic and social issues.  The electoral college pits sections or states against each other which makes these divisions even deeper.  I hope, through a popular vote, that nominees will spend more time on national television and less time traveling, catering to provincial needs.   My last hope will most never happen-we should not even be aware of the states the votes came from. 

I realize that small states want the electoral college to remain.  Let’s use Delaware, since it is both in the Philadelphia metropolitan area and one of the six states with three electoral votes.  Delaware has one representative matched against 19 for Pennsylvania, or 5.2% of Pennsylvania’s clout.  Adding the two Senators to get the electoral vote gives Pennsylvania 21 and Delaware three.  Delaware’s percentage to Pennsylvania has risen from 5.2% to 14.2%, or almost tripled.

While sympathizing with the small states, let me again state the obvious; we already have a branch of government which requires officials to balance their sectional interest against those of the entire nation.  The House of Representatives has one member for each congressional district, giving states representation by population.  The House handles the nitty-gritty, pick and shovel operations.  The Senate, with each state a sovereign or equal, tackles broad policies and procedures and has constitutional mandates in foreign policy, and the confirmation of cabinet members, ambassadors, and federal judges.

Let’sjjj elect the President as one nation.       

Bobby Walston’s Three Biggest Field Goals

While Bobby Walston was not the NFL’s best place kicker, he seemed to come through when needed.  The three field goals in the following games have a unique place in the team’s history.

1960 Game 5 at the Cleveland Browns

The Eagles did not look like champions in the first week of the season at Franklin Field.  Jimmy Brown and Bobby Mitchell tore up the defensive line and the Eagles lost 41 to 24.   Now on the road things were different.  Bobby Walston opened the scoring with a 46 yard touchdown pass from Norman Van Brocklin.  With less than one minute left, Walston booted a 38 yard field for a 31 to 29 victory.  This was the biggest win of the season.  Philadelphia was first in the Eastern Conference with a 10-2 record, 1 and 1/2 games better than Cleveland,  whose record was 8-3-1.  Had the Eagles lost, they would have been second,  9-3 to Cleveland’s 9-2-1.  Big Game.

NFL Championship Game at Franklin Field

In the second quarter, Bobby Walston kicked a 15 yard field goal, giving the Eagles a 10 to 6 lead at halftime.  Put simply, the two teams traded touchdowns in the second half.  One their last drive, the Packers were trailing 17 to 13.  They had to score a touchdown to win.  Chuck Bednarick made his tackle on Jim Taylor at the Eagles’ eight on the final play.  Without Walston’s field goal, Green Bay could have played  for their own three points,  deep in  Eagles’ territory.   A loss would been quite possible, if not likely.  Philadelphia won 17 to 13.

1961 Final Game at the Detroit Lions

Bobby Walston booted a 10 yard field goal in the last minute for a 27 to 24 victory.  After the win, Philadelphians waited for the results of the Giants and Browns game at Yankee Stadium.  If the Browns won, both the Giants and Philadelphia would be 10-4. We were hoping for a playoff game at Yankee Stadium the following week.  New York would have the home field advantage since they won both games against the Eagles, the first  a runaway and the second much closer.  However, Cleveland and New York played to a 7 all tie. The Eagles were in second place, one half game behind the 10-3-1 New York Giants.

Hoover with President Wilson

After tense negotiations at Versailles, President Wilson came home with his famous 14 points, which included the United States in the League of Nations. This was early in 1919. When he presented the treaty to the Senate, there were strong objections. Wilson might have expected that. Ten years earlier, Woodrow Wilson wrote a treatise on the importance of congressional government. In practice, he completely ignored both the Advise and Consent of the Senate and bipartisan support from Republicans. Particularly vexed were members of the Foreign Relations Committee, especially the Chairman, Henry Cabot Lodge.

Herbert Hoover, while directing relief efforts in Europe, sent communiques to both the President and selected Senators urging a compromise. The Foreign Relations Committee held hearings and reviewed proposals. There was animosity between Wilson and Lodge and the United States should have entered the League. Nevertheless, the President’s near dictatorial approach puts him well beyond my sympathy. No president can torpedo the constitution to achieve his goals.

After the Senate rebuff, President Wilson went on a whirlwind tour of the country directly appealing to the people for approval of both the treaty and the League. The President had his eye on the 1920 elections but was also hoping for current constituent pressure. Perhaps this would persuade reluctant Senators from both parties.

Herbert Hoover in Europe continued on his two tracks-writing members of congress, the Wilson Administration, and reporters on behalf of the League and continuing war relief for the devastated countries. President Wilson at Pueblo, Co suffered a severe stroke and immediately railed back to the White House. There his condition improved but he remained an invalid for the rest of his term, even until his death in 1924. In the time left in his term, there was an almost constant parade of people from the White House to the Senate, and the reverse, seeking to reach a compromise. Mrs. Wilson, very protective of her husband, was virtually the acting President of the United states. Both sides grew hardened; there was no treaty approved until the next administration and the United States did not enter the league.

In the rest the country things were bad as well. The post war depression and inflation were causing untold misery. Without an official President, each cabinet officer went off on his own without central coordination. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer continued his lawless assault in civil liberties. He made future Attorneys General, such as John Mitchell and Ed Meese, seem mild by comparison. As the 1920 Presidential Elections neared a Republican victory seemed certain. The only hope for the Democrats was the nomination of Herbert Hoover. He was virtually the only member of the Wilson Administration with any credibility.

Many Democrats, with Franklin Roosevelt in the lead, urged Herbert Hoover to declare himself for their party’s nomination. FDR was the Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Wilson and often worked closely with Hoover. Roosevelt stated “He {Hoover} certainly is a wonder and I wish we could make him President of the United States. There could not be a better one.”

In spite of this Hoover stated he was a Republican. This stemmed from the Frontier Liberalism of Abraham Lincoln and a personal philosophy. I will talk about the 1920 election and Hoover’s role in it.